1. The Hyphen (-) is used between syllables and between the parts of a compound word; as, No-ble, col-o-ny, and text-book, easy-chair.
2. The Comma (,), the Semicolon (;), and the Colon (:) denote grammatical divisions.
NOTE — These marks do not indicate the comparative length of the pauses tobe made where they occur.
3. The Period (.) is placed at the end of a sentence. It is also usedafter an abbreviation; as, God is love. Dr. Eben Goodwin.
4. The Interrogation point (?) denotes a question; as, Has he come? Whoare you?
5. The Exclamation point (!) denotes strong feeling; as, Oh Absaom! myson! my son!
6. Quotation marks (“ ”) denote the words of another; as, God said, “Letthere be light.”
7. The Apostrophe (’) denotes that a letter or letters are left out; as,O’er, for over; ’t is, for it is. It also denotes the possessive case; as,John’s hat.
8. The Curves ( ) include what, if omitted, would not obscure the sense.The parenthesis, or words included by the curves, should be read in a lowkey, and with greater rapidity than the rest of the sentence.
9. Brackets [ ] include something intended to exemplify what goes before,or to supply some deficiency, or rectify some mistake.
10. A Dash (-) denotes a long or significant pause, or an abrupt change ortransition in a sentence.
11. Marks of Ellipsis (***) indicate the omission ofletters of a word, or words of a sentence; as, P****eJ**n, for Prince John; the ******* was hung, for the traitor was hung.
Sometimes a long line, or a succession of dots is used instead of stars;as, J--n A---s, for John Adams; the D..e W…..m, for the Duke William.
12. A Brace (}) is used to connect several lines or words together.